|Academic Effect of Later School Start Times|
During Phase II, the Mid-Atlantic Regional Educational Labratory (REL) compiled a list of resources in response to a query from an AACPS Board of Education Member: Is there an academic effect on later start times for schools (elementary, middle, and high school)? What is the recommend school start time at each level? What are some of the issues that arise with later start times? Below is a summary of their responses. For the complete annoated response from REL, click here.
Earlier School Start Times as a Risk Factor for Poor School Performance: An Examination of Public Elementary Schools in the Commonwealth of Kentucky, February 2015
This study examines the potential implications of early school start times for standardized test scores in public elementary schools in Kentucky.Findings support the growing body of research showing that early school start times may influence student learning but offer some of the first evidence that this influence may occur for elementary school children and depend on school characteristics.
School Start Time Change: An In-Depth Examination of School Districts in the United States, December 2014
This study of school districts that have been successful in changing their bell schedules summarizes the experiences of school districts across the United States in regard to challenges faced, strategies employed, and lessons learned in the hope that this information will be a useful tool for other school districts looking to chart a course forward to promote the health, safety, and academic opportunities of their students.
Sleep Duration, Positive Attitude toward Life, and Academic Achievement: The Role of Daytime Tiredness, Behavioral Persistence, and School Start Times, April 2013
This study examines the relationship of sleep duration with positive attitude toward life and academic achievement and whether this relationship is mediated by increased daytime tiredness and lower self-discipline/behavioral persistence.
Do Schools Begin Too Early? Summer 2012
In this study, the author uses data from Wake County, North Carolina, to examine how start times affect the performance of middle school students on standardized tests. The author finds that delaying school start times by one hour, from roughly 7:30 to 8:30, increases standardized test scores by at least 2 percentile points in math and 1 percentile point in reading.
School Start Times and the Sleep-Wake Cycle of Adolescents--A Review and Critical Evaluation of Available Evidence, March 2011
In this essay, the authors examined findings from pilot interventions in which schools delayed their start times; specifically, they examined the effects on students, including potential pitfalls and strategies to consider for effective scheduling change. There is sufficient evidence that adolescent students would benefit from delaying school start times and that this change can be implemented with tolerable consequences if adequately strategized by school districts and communities.
Organizing Schools to Improve Student Achievement: Start Times, Grade Configurations, and Teacher Assignments, August 2011
In this discussion paper, the authors describe three organizational reforms that recent evidence suggests have the potential to increase K-12 student performance at modest costs: (1) Starting school later in the day for middle and high school students; (2) Shifting from a system with separate elementary and middle schools to one with schools that serve students in kindergarten through grade eight; (3) Managing teacher assignments with an eye toward maximizing student achievement.
A Survey of Factors Influencing High School Start Times, March 2005
This study surveyed high school personnel regarding high school start times, factors influencing school start times, and decision making around school schedules.